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Watch Dr. Mark Geier and David Geier in Trace Amounts

Medic holding syringe and capsule with vaccine in hand. Vaccination. Influenza


Dr. Mark Geier and his son, David Geier, were featured in a documentary last year called Trace Amounts. If you have never seen the film and have questions about the power of money and influence on policy decisions, you’ll want to see it as soon as possible. Dr. Geier and David Geier have spoken out in the past about the dangers of mercury toxicity and why even traces of Thimeresol found in flu vaccines and childhood vaccines are dangerous.


At its heart, Trace Amounts examines the link between mercury preservatives found in some vaccines and childhood neurological diseases like autism. It asks a simple question of how the medical community could dismiss any evidence of a link between vaccines and autism, and yet, be no closer to pinpointing a cause that could show why the rate of autism spectrum disorder has increased exponentially.


It chronicles the true story of Eric Gladen, who suffered from mercury-poisoning after receiving a Thimerosal-loaded tetanus shot. After he was treated for mercury-poisoning, he noticed that he was beginning to feel differently. He was diagnosed as having autism-like symptoms as an adult. The film takes a micro look at his journey as well as a macro overview of why vaccines still have this dangerous ingredient in their formula.

What Is a Neurodegenerative Disease?

Neurons in the brain

One of the hottest debates among neurological disorder researchers is whether or not autism spectrum disorder would qualify as a neurodegenerative disease. A neurodegenerative disease is a term for a number of conditions where the body’s neurons are affected in some capacity. Neurons are unlike other cells in the body as they do not reproduce or replace themselves, so if they are damaged or die, the body cannot adapt. Because neurons are responsible for a number of important functions and they are a very influential part of the nervous system, neuron damage or death can have dire effects on the body. Common neurodegenerative diseases include Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease.


As the medical community is still trying to understand the mechanisms of Autism Spectrum Disorder, some are reluctant to call it a neurodegenerative disease just yet. They want to know more about the causation of the disorder and how that relates to the nervous system. However, some in the community have made efforts to show how Autism Spectrum Disorder is a neurodegenerative disease. David Geier along with his father Mark Geier and researchers, Janet K. Kern and Lisa K. Skyes, wrote a paper in 2013 for Translational Neurodegeneration that discusses the multiple reasons why Autism Spectrum Disorder is a neurodegeneration disease. You can read about their findings here.


By classifying Autism Spectrum Disorder as a neurodegenerative disease, researchers may be able to spend more time learning how neuron damage could cause the symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder to work towards finding a cure.

Can Ingredients In Hepatitis B Vaccine Cause ADD/ADHD?

shutterstock_186335381Hyperkinetic syndrome of childhood (HKSoC) is a psychiatric disorder that is encompasses attention deficit disorder (ADD)/attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD. The onset of HKSoC may be attributed to Thimerosal-persevered Hepatitis B vaccines due to the toxicological effects of the bolus exposure to organic-Hg (mercury). This hypothesis was formulated by vaccine safety researcher David Geier, along with fellow researchers, who recently published “Thimerosal-Preserved Hepatitis B Vaccine and Hyperkinetic Syndrome of Childhood” in the Brain Sciences journal of MDPI.

The Research

Geier and his fellow researchers noted that previous studies have implied that mercury exposure is a risk factor of the onset of HKSoC. To test the hypothesis, they used the Vaccine Safety Datalink to measure the toxicological effects of the bolus exposure to organic-Hg from Thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCVs) at varying levels and at specific intervals of time during the first six months after birth, and then evaluating the risk of a child being diagnosed with Hyperkinetic syndrome.

They found that a child was significantly more at risk of developing HKSoC when exposed to increasing doses of Thimerosal-persevered Hepatitis B vaccine within the first month (odds ratio = 1.45; 95% confidence interval = 1.30-1.62), within first two months (odds ratio = 1.43; 95% confidence interval = 1.28-1.59), and within the first six months (odds ratio = 4.51; 95% confidence interval = 3.04–6.71).

The researchers concluded that the results indicate a heightened risk of a HKSoC diagnosis when exposed to organic-Hg exposure from TCVs. This is a significant finding because the CDC’s recommended immunization schedule for children from birth to 6 years old makes the HepB vaccination the first one in an infant’s life, which the above research indicates serious repercussions following that specific vaccination.

Confronting CDC Choices

After years of CDC insistence that vaccines pose no risk to recipients, the Centers for Disease Control’s leading epidemiologist admits he helped cover up results that demonstrated a link between the MMR vaccine (for measles, mumps and rubella) and autism. The CDC has yet to acknowledge Dr. Thompson’s charge that a study did demonstrate a causal link between this vaccine and autism.

The specific CDC research paper Dr. Thompson refers to, published in 2004, does not state that there exists a link between the MMR vaccine and autism. However, Thompson asserts that’s because the actual data was not included in the paper. The actual data portrays a far different picture; Thompson notes that results from African American children were deliberately omitted as a means of showing no link between the vaccine and autism.

Were data from this sample population to be included, the paper would have concluded that children who received the MMR vaccine before the age of 3 were at a 69% increased risk for developing autism; the risk for developing autism among African American children before the age of 3 would have increased to 240%.

Dr. Thompson has moved for whistleblower status for his decision to bring the situation to light. While there was talk of holding a hearing, nothing has been set up as of yet.

This is not the first time questions have been raised about the CDC’s efficacy and potential to misconstrue the truth about vaccine safety. Researchers like Mark and David Geier have long discussed their concern with the CDC’s decision to refute ample evidence of the risks of vaccines containing toxic ingredients like mercury. The CDC relies on just six research papers to back its claims that vaccines do not pose any risk to recipients, though the majority of these papers were supported or funded in some way by the CDC itself. CDC leadership is also largely comprised of individuals who do not hold medical degrees or scientific research PhDs, which raises concerns about their ability to make decisions that are in the best interest of public health.

The Geiers have also expressed significant difficulty accessing information from the CDC’s databases to conduct research, even though such information is required to be readily available to the public.

Why might the CDC choose to remain firm in its belief that all vaccines are safe? While we can only speculate, it is interesting to note that the ingredients scientists find present risks are the ingredients that either help extend the longevity of a vaccine’s shelf life or increase the immune system’s response to it. It is also interesting to consider the profit at stake for pharmaceutical companies, which are known for their robust lobbying of government officials and organizations.


The Big Picture: Assessing Neurodevelopmental Disorders

While much of science centers on the “little things,” sometimes big picture perspectives are essential for understanding trends, patterns, and the root cause of health conditions. Such is the case when we talk about neurodevelopmental disorders, which have been increasing in prevalence over the course of the last few decades. While neurodevelopmental research on conditions like autism have primarily focused on genetic causes, scientists conducting this research have yet to make truly significant breakthroughs, nor have they been able to explain how a population’s genetic predisposition for a disorder like autism could increase so rapidly within a few generations.

It’s for this reason that scientists Mark and David Geier have studied the potential environmental causes of neurodevelopmental disorders, and their “big picture” epidemiological assessment of neurodevelopmental disorder individuals over the course of six years—from 1994 to 2000—offers up convincing evidence that the sharp increase in neurodevelopmental disorder diagnoses the United States has witnessed isn’t the result of more genetic mutations.

The Geiers’ assessment involved compiling data from the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System, a large database that collects information on individuals that experienced adverse effects after receiving vaccines. The Geiers’ looked at a database focused on vaccine adverse events because their previous research had shown that vaccines had the potential to increase an individual’s risk of developing autism. Specifically, vaccines that contained the toxic mercury-containing compound Thimerosal demonstrated a causal relationship to a child’s risk for developing autism. By looking at a large sample study over the course of a protracted period of time, the Geiers would now be able to contribute even more credibility to their findings.

So just what did their big picture assessment turn up?

The Geiers used data from the VAERS database to make comparisons on varying criteria. First, they identified the number of children who developed neurodevelopmental disorders after receiving DTaP vaccines that contained Thimerosal (which were administered between 1994 and 1997), to the number of children with neurodevelopmental disorders that received DTaP vaccines without Thimerosal (which were administered between 1997 and 2000). The same comparison was conducted with the DTPH vaccine, which combined the traditional Thimerosal-containing DTP vaccine with the HiB vaccine, which also contained mercury.

In making these two comparisons using an accepted framework for statistical analysis, the Geiers found there to be significant statistical evidence of a relationship between cases of neurodevelopmental disorders, and children who received a vaccine that contained Thimerosal, noting that children who received doses of vaccines that didn’t contain Thimerosal had a much lower number of reported neurodevelopmental disorders. The relationship between Thimerosal-containing vaccines and the risk for neurodevelopmental disorder was evident even when tested against each of the seven individual categories of common neurodevelopmental symptoms

The Geiers thus have shown that existing research on the risks of Thimerosal simply can’t be disregarded; when such apparent relationships appear over the course of many years, using vast sample sizes from individuals throughout the entire country, there’s no doubt that closer attention ought to be given to the subject. The numbers don’t lie.

An Exploration of Thimerosal Toxicity and the Autistic Brain: Part I

In their paper, “Thimerosal Exposure and the Role of Sulfation Chemistry and Thiol Availability with Thimerosal,” Janet Kern, Boyd Haley, David Geier, Lisa Sykes, Paul King and Mark Geier explore recent studies that suggest children with the autism spectrum disorder(ASD) have physical biomarkers for the disorder:  abnormal levels of sulfation chemistry, limited thiol ability, and lower levels of glutathione (GSH—a type of thiol) that lead to weaker oxidation capacities and detoxification. Specifically, Kern et al. discuss the extent to which the hypothesis that GSH and sulfation chemistry impact how the body reacts to Thimerosal, a mercury-containing compound that was used as a preservative in many standard childhood vaccines in the United States and around the world. Kern wondered: could a combination of abnormal sulfation chemistry, lower GSH, and limited thiol ability make an individual’s susceptibility to the toxic effects of Thimerosal greater?


While many characterize autism as a psychological/behavioral disorder, some researchers, including Mark and David Geier, have shown that ASD individuals also demonstrate physical abnormalities. These physical symptoms include seizures, sleep disorders, gastrointestinal issues, and incontinence, among others. The presence of physical symptoms suggests that there should be metabolic biomarkers for ASD, given that it is in fact a disorder with symptoms beyond abnormal neurodevelopment.

We also know that autism can be a regressive disorder, in which individuals aren’t born as autistic, but rather only begin to display symptoms of ASD after 15-24 months of age. Research offers widely varying rates for the frequency of autistic regression, but the lowest frequency reported among populations of ASD sample studies has been 15% to more than half of all cases. To determine how a potential environmental factor like Thimerosal could affect ASD, Kern et al. looked specifically at ASD individuals with regressive autism.

A Word on Thimerosal

Even though Thimerosal began to be phased out of some common childhood vaccines around 2000, at the same time, the CDC began to encourage pregnant women in their 2nd and 3rd trimesters, and infants as early as 6 months, to receive flu vaccines, vaccines which were still preserved with Thimerosal. Today, more than half of all flu vaccines are preserved in Thimerosal.  Thimerosal is not found in nature, and its toxicity has been proven in many studies; in fact, it’s the most toxic non-radioactive metal to fetal and neuronal cells.

GSH, Thiols and Sulfation

Let’s return to Thimerosal’s connection to thiols and GSH. Thiols are known to mitigate the toxicity of Hg, and in turn, the toxicity of Thimerosal; studies have shown that the extent of Thimerosal’s toxicity to the body is largely dependent upon the cellular content of the GSH thiol. The degree of cell damage after Thimerosal exposure is highly dependent upon the availability of these thiols; yet paradoxically, Thimerosal decreases their production and effectiveness when introduced. Studies have shown that GSH levels in mice not only decreased after exposure to Thimerosal, but persisted at low levels for weeks after exposure. Exposure to mercury (the toxic element of Thimerosal) has also been shown to hinder the development of the brain’s GSH antioxidant system, which can cause oxidative damage.

It’s also been demonstrated that individuals with ASD have unusual sulfation chemistry, to the extent that researchers believe it’s the result of either faulty sulfate production or use that exceeds the body’s rate of replenishment.  Specifically, ASD individuals maintain approximately 50 times the sulfite levels of control children. It’s important to note here that sulfite is an extremely toxic compound that, in a properly functioning body, is converted to the non-toxic compound sulfate. As Kern et al. point out, studies have shown that Hg has the potential to interrupt this conversion process, and thus result in higher levels of toxic sulfite in the body. In fact, children with abnormal transulfuration (a term used to describe this conversion process) also are found to have lower levels of accompanying transulfuration metabolites. Interestingly, the majority of children with these levels developed autism after 15 months of age, suggesting their autism is regressive.

Researchers have also discovered that the lower an individual’s sulfate levels, the more severe the nature of their autism; this was also found to be the case with GSH levels. In other words, these biomarkers play a role in the manifestation of autistic symptoms. Should they be limited, by something like Hg, which is known to affect both GSH and sulfation, research suggests the severity of autistic symptoms increases.  All of the relationships Kern et al. have analyzed between Thimerosal and GSH/sulfation lay the framework, as detailed in the second half of the blog, for a compelling argument for Thimerosal’s ability to affect some ASD children more severely than others.


Is Autism a Neurodegenerative Disorder?

How does autism affect the brain? This is a question that’s motivated researchers in pursuit of understanding the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) for years. We already know that ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder that impairs an individual’s ability to communicate, interact socially, comprehend, and behave the way neurotypical individuals do. However, pinpointing ASD’s root cause may be aided by an exploration into the neurodegeneration hypothesis. This hypothesis, which suggests that ASD can be regressive, stems from reports that some autistic children acquired neurological impairments after certain skills were developed. In other words, rather than being born with the inability to communicate, interact, and comprehend in a typical fashion, children can acquire these skills and then lose them. This regression suggests that development is somehow interrupted, rather than impaired from birth. ASD regression is said to affect anywhere between 15% and 65% of individuals on the autism spectrum. Whether autism can be officially considered a neurodegenerative disorder has remained under debate.

Recent research from David Geier, Mark Geier, Janet Kern, and Lisa Sykes probes deeper into the neurodegeneration hypothesis in their 2013 paper, “Evidence of Neurodegeneration in the Autism Spectrum Disorder.” According to the researchers, when synthesizing an array of related research, it can be determined that there is enough credible evidence to conclude ASD can be a neurodegenerative disorder.

To start, widespread post-mortem evaluations of individuals with ASD demonstrate that these individuals experienced a loss of neuron cells (a defining characteristic of neurodegeneration). It’s also been found that individuals with ASD have fewer neuron cells and pyramidal cells in their amygdala than control subjects. Further, the role of microglia, non-neuron cells that maintain homeostasis in the body and can contribute to the development of other neurological disorders, may also point to neurodegeneration in ASD individuals. Studies have found that these microglia can be responsible for the dissolution of neurons, and can also produce toxic cytokines that can damage neurons and lead to neurodegeneration.  Findings from a number of recent studies support the hypothesis that microglia activation could be evidence of degeneration, given that many regions of the brain with activated microglia, most prominently the cerebellum, were found to be inflamed in those with ASD.

The toxins that can be released by microglia activation, which include nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species, and a number of proinflammatory cytokines, also point to neurodegeneration. These inflammatory cytokines have been found to be present in other neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and Multiple Sclerosis, yet have in appeared in the spinal cords and brains of those with ASD, too. An increase in the production of ROS (reactive oxygen species), is also prominent in neurodegenerative diseases like ALS, Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease, as ROS ultimately results in the loss of neuron cells. As with individuals of these neurodegenerative disorders, those with ASD also maintain high levels of cell death as a result of oxidative stress.

Studies have also revealed that an oxidative stress damage marker that appears in the brains of those with neurodegenerative disorders, 8oHdG, appears at 63% higher levels in those with ASD than in control subjects.

While “Evidence of Neurodegeneration in Autism Spectrum Disorder” presents compelling evidence that ASD can in fact be considered a neurodegenerative disorder, as the researchers assert, its link to toxic exposures must also become more widely studied and accepted. Prolific research has suggested toxins can trigger the onset of ASD, yet this research has been largely dismissed by institutions like the World Health Organization because ASD is not currently classified as a neurodegenerative disorder. With additional research and awareness, this may soon change.